Spirituality, Internalism & Externalism, – Religious Studies
Justification– a reason that someone holds a rational admissible belief, on the assumption that it is a good reason for holding it. Example- Sources-perceptual experience, senses, reason, testimony. A belief justified does not guarantee the belief is true. A person could justify in forming beliefs based on convincing evidence that was nonetheless deceiving.
Truth– is the property or state of being in accordance with facts or reality. Most view, truth is correspondence of language or thought to a mind-independent, which is a correspondence theory of truth. There are various different ways that describe beliefs, including representations of ways the world could be as dispositions to act as if certain things are true.
Knowledge, familiar awareness, understanding something or someone, including facts, propositional knowledge, skills, procedural knowledge, or objects, acquaintance knowledge. Important distinction between the senses of knowing, knowing the structure of a body of knowledge or justified belief, whether derived from foundational beliefs or a coherent set of beliefs. Skepticism, which questions the possibility of knowledge and any related problems, may pose a threat. ” How do we know that we know?’
Analysis, Perception, Reason, memory, Testimony- potential sources of knowledge & justified belief.
Miracle– a beneficial event maybe attributed to a supernatural being, a deity, miracle worker, saint, religious leader, statistically unlikely but not contrary to the laws of nature, a wonder occurrence, regardless of likelihood.
Magic-Individuals who practice magic refer to themselves as magicians, effecting change in accordance with Divine Will. Unconventional & Dangerous. First century CE, the concept was associated with demons. Throughout the middle ages, early modern period Humanist reinterpreted the terms to natural magic. Both negative & positive. Negative connotations, fraudulent, unconventional. Scholars of religions define or suggest magic and science are opposites.
Demon-Supernatural, often malevolent being prevalent in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology, folklore, ancient, medieval. A demon is a harmful spiritual entity, below heavenly planes, which cause demonic possession. A spiritual entity that may be conjured or controlled, calling for an exorcism.
Heaven– a higher place, holiest, paradise, in contrast to hell or the underworld or the low places. Universally or conditionally accessible by earthly beings according to various standards of divinity, goodness, piety, faith, virtues, right beliefs, or simply the Will of GOD. Any place of existence either of humans, souls, deities, outside the tangible world (Heaven, Hell, or other) is referred to as Otherworld. Heaven a common religious, cosmological, transcendent place where beings such as Gods, Angels, Spirits, Saints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned or live.
Spirit-supernatural being, often, but not exclusively a non-physical entity, such as an angel, ghost or fairy. The concept of a person’s spirit and soul, often also overlap, as both are either contrasted with or given priority over the body. Spirit can also have the sense of a Ghost, A spirit of a deceased person. Or in Biblical Bibles the Spirit with a capital ‘S’ denotes the Holy Spirit. Spirit is often used metaphysically to refer to consciousness or personality.
Angel- Generally supernatural being found in various religions, mythologies, often as benevolent celestial beings who act intermediaries between God or Heaven and Earth. Other roles may include guiding and protecting Human beings, carrying out Gods tasks. Angels may be organized in hierarchies, such rankings may vary between sects in each religion, and are given specific names or titles such as Gabriel or Destroying Angel. Study Angelology.
Deity– male is a god, female a goddess. Deity -equivalent aspects of the same divine principle. Divine or Sacred and may have powers greater than humans. Can interact with humans, positive or negative, in ways that carry human to a new level of consciousness. Beyond ordinary life. Who live, die, and are reborn just like any other being. Masculine and Feminine gender neutral for human beings who gain merit through an ethical life, becoming a guardian deity and live blissfully in heaven but are also subject to death when their merit runs out.
May Peace Be with Us All, always.